VIVEK DHAKAL: Topical Portion

I'm a Civil Engineer. I usually write about engineering and some topical matters.

What is Clean Feed Rule in Nepal? Importance of Clean Feed

What is Clean Feed Rule in Nepal? Importance of Clean Feed

What is clean feed rule in Nepal?
The Government of Nepal has made clean feed policy mandatory since Kartik 7, 2077. The government of Nepal had actually tried to implement this policy a year before but Cable TV operators were not well prepared at that time & urged some time to the government. Then, the Government of Nepal provided a period of one year for them to be fully prepared with clean feed channels & has been mandatorily implemented from the date.

 What is the Clean Feed Rule in Nepal?

Clean feed is a provision of foreign advertisement less television channels in Nepal. Non-Nepalese TV channels are not allowed to show their advertisements in Nepal. So the basic principle behind this is that foreign advertisements should not be fed to Nepali people via non-Nepalese TV channels. If foreign companies wish to show their ads to Nepali people, they have to make it in Nepali setup & are only able to give it to the Nepalese TV channels. Before the implementation of clean feed, the foreign channels were showing their ads without investing even a penny in Nepal. All the foreign companies were giving their advertisement charge to non-Nepalese TV channels & those channels were free to show their ads in Nepal. Besides this, those channels were also charging fees to Nepali customers for watching their channels with ads. After the implementation of this policy, all the foreign channels have to broadcast their shows without ads. Clean feed policy comes under Advertisement Regulation Act 2076.

What is the importance of Clean Feed in Nepal?

  • As the foreign channels were not allowed to show ads in Nepal, all the foreign advertisers targeting the Nepali audiences will be compelled to make their ads in Nepal & distribute it to Nepali TV channels which will obviously endorse the foreign currency in Nepal.
  • As foreign advertisers are forced to make their ads in the Nepali language, Nepalese artists will get more chances to get involved in it.
  • As the number of foreign ads will be reduced considerably, Nepalese products will get more space in digital marketing.
  • There won't be any irrelevant foreign ads thus improving the television watching experience.
Federal Nepal: Provinces & Local Levels of Nepal

Federal Nepal: Provinces & Local Levels of Nepal

According to article 56 of the constitution of Nepal, the main structure of the federal democratic republic of Nepal shall be of three levels namely the federation, the state & local levels. As per the present constitution, Nepal has 7 states/provinces & 753 local levels. The new structure divides Nepal into 77 districts & 6,743 wards. The local levels include metropolises (6), sub metropolises (11), municipalities (276) & gaupalikas (460).
New Map of Nepal with 7 provinces and their Capitals
The capital city of Nepal is Kathmandu. The current President of Nepal is Bidhya Devi Bhandari & the current prime minister is Sher Bahadur Deuba. Nepal has a total population of  2,64,94,504 according to the 2011 census.

7 States of Nepal

Province No 1

Map of Province no 1 with districts
Province no 1 lies in the eastern region of Nepal. Its boundary touches both of the neighboring countries of Nepal i.e. India & China. It consists of 14 districts & 137 local levels. Mount Everest, the highest peak of the world is located in this state. Apart from this, it has other mountains like Kanchanjangha, Choyu, Makalu, Lotse, etc. Illam, Namche Bajar of Solukhumbu, Sagarmatha base camp, etc are the major tourist attractions of this region. The famous Pathivara temple of Taplejung district is also located in this state. The Puwa Khola hydroelectricity project & Thame hydroelectricity project are situated in this state. The major rivers of this province are Mechi, Arun, Tamor, Dudhkoshi, etc. The major lakes located in this province are namely Mai Pokhari, Jor Pokhari, Baraha Lake, etc.

Province No 2

Map of Province no 2 with districts
It is the smallest state of Nepal & only touches India in its boundary. It has 8 districts along with 136 local levels. The Janaki temple of Janakpur & Chhinamasta temple of Saptari district are the major religious places of this state. The well-known Bagamati irrigation project lies in this province. This is the only province of Nepal that does not contain any hydroelectricity project. The biggest river of Nepal, the Saptakoshi river flows in this region.

Province No 3: Bagmati Pradesh

Map of Province no 3 with districts
It is a relatively more developed & well-infrastructured province of Nepal. It has its border connected to both India & China. The capital city of the country, Kathmandu, is situated in this province & the provincial capital is Hetauda. Kathmandu city is also known as the city of temples. The Pashupatinath Temple, Krishna temple of Patan, Swyambhunath, Bouddhanath, Changunarayan, Gosaikunda, Kalinchowk Bhagwati, Manakamana temple, Dakshinkali temple, etc are the major religious places of this state. There are other well-known tourist attractions as well. They are namely Patan, Bhaktapur, Nagarkot, Chovar, Dhulikhel, Chitwan National Park, Langtang National Park, Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Chandragiri hills, Annapurna base camp trekking, etc. This province consists of 13 districts & 119 local levels.

Province No 4: Gandaki Pradesh

Map of Province no 4 with districts
Gandaki Province is situated in between Province no 5 & Bagmati Province touching both of the neighboring countries at its boundary. It consists of 11 districts along with 85 local levels. The Pokhara city, also called tourists paradise, is located at the heart of this state. The heavenly Pokhara city, Phewa Lake, Devi's Fall, Mahendra Cave, International Mountain Museum, Annapurna Mountain, Machapuchre Mountain, Tilicho Lake, Upper Mustang, etc are the major tourist attractions of this state. Kaligandaki, Budigandaki, Marsyandi, Modi, Seti, Aandhikhola etc are the major rivers flowing in this state.

Province No 5: Lumbini Pradesh

Map of Province no 5 with districts
Province No 5 is one of the 7 provinces established by the present constitution of Nepal that contains 6 districts in the Terai region and the remaining 6 districts in the mountainous region out of a total of 12 districts within its territory. It only touches India at its boundary. Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Gautam Buddha is situated in this state. The largest valley of Asia i.e. the Dang valley lies in this region. Lumbini, Bardiya National Park, Banke National Park, Blackbuck Conservation area, etc are the major tourist attractions of this province.

Province No 6: Karnali Pradesh

Map of Province no 6 with districts
It is the largest state of Nepal that only touches China in the North at its boundary. It has 10 districts & 79 local levels. Humla Karnali, Mugu Karnali, Thulo Bheri, Sano Bheri, Budiganga, Setiganga, Tila, etc are the major rivers of this region. Rara lake, Shey Phoksundo lake, Syarpu lake, Jagadulla lake, Bulbule lake, etc are the well-known lakes of this state. Rara National Park, Shey Phoksundo National Park, Kankrebihar, etc are well-known sites for tourists attraction in this region.

Province No 7: Sudur Pashchim Pradesh

Map of Province no 7 with districts
It is situated at the western end of Nepal & touches both India and China at its boundary. It consists of 9 districts & 88 local levels. Kailali, Tikapur, Mahendranagar, Dhangadhi, etc are the main cities of this state. Khaptad National Park, Shuklaphata National Park, Naini Lake, Jhilamila Lake, Ghodaghodi Lake, Dodhara Chadhani bridge, Karnali bridge, Tikapur Park, Lipulekh, Limpiyadhura, Kalapani, etc are the major tourist destinations of this region. The Mahakali river flows in this state.

Local Levels of Nepal

A total of 753 local levels have been made in the new federal structure of Nepal. They comprise 6743 wards. The local levels include gaupalikas, metropolis, sub metropolis & municipalities. Kathmandu & Bhaktapur districts do not have gaupalikas. Likewise Manang, Mustang, Humla, Rauwa & Purbi Rukum districts do not have municipalities. All the local levels of Nepal operate under the Local Government Operation Act, 2074 which came into effect in 2074/06/29. This act has made a criterion of 5 - 21 wards limit for Gaupalikas & 9 - 35 wards limit for municipalities.
National Parks of Nepal | Wildlife Reserve and Conservation Areas

National Parks of Nepal | Wildlife Reserve and Conservation Areas

How many National Parks are there in Nepal?
- 12
Which is the largest national park in Nepal?                          
- Shey Phoksundo National Park 
Which is the smallest national park in Nepal?
- Rara National Park
Which is the oldest national park in Nepal?
- Chitwan National Park
Which is the youngest national park of Nepal?
- Banke National Park
How many wildlife reserves are there in Nepal?
- 1 (Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve)
How many conservation areas are there in Nepal?
- 6
Which is the largest conservation area of Nepal?
- Annapurna Conservation Area
Which is the smallest conservation area of Nepal?
- Krishnasaar Conservation Area
Which is the oldest conservation area of Nepal?
- Annapurna Conservation Area
Which is the newest conservation area of Nepal?
- Krishnasaar Conservation Area
How many hunting reserves are there in Nepal?
- 1 (Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve)

Differences Between National Park and Wildlife Reserve

National parks are usually established to preserve the flora and fauna of the area and other things of historical and geographical importance while wildlife reserves are solely motivated to protect a particular group of flora and fauna. Human activities like agriculture and organic farming, extracting timbers or collecting fruits, berries, honey, etc. are allowed in wildlife reserves while it is not allowed in national parks. A wildlife reserve can be upgraded to a national park while vice versa is not possible. There are twelve national parks in Nepal whereas there is only one wildlife reserve.

12 National Parks of Nepal in map

Conservation Areas

There are six conservation areas in Nepal to protect natural ecosystems and to use natural resources sustainably. They are generally large and most of the areas are in natural conditions.

Hunting Reserve

Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve is the only hunting reserve in Nepal established with an aim of preserving a representative high altitude ecosystem in west Nepal and allow sports hunting of blue sheep and other game animals.

Ramsar Sites

These are the wetlands (having water depth less than 6m) conserved by an intergovernmental treaty, known as Ramsar Convention held in Ramsar, Iran at 1971 AD.

Basic Information on Protected Areas of Nepal

Protected Areas of Nepal comprehends twelve national parks, six conservation areas, one wildlife reserve, and a hunting reserve that covers most of the forested areas ranging from lowlands to the high snow-capped mountains, fringing a multitude of landscapes and taking care of a vast biodiversity present in the realm. In addition, numerous Ramsar sites (wetlands) have also been safeguarding innumerable floras and faunas.

Hydroelectricity in Nepal | Hydropower Projects in Nepal

Hydroelectricity in Nepal | Hydropower Projects in Nepal

Hydroelectricity in Nepal

There are more than 6000 rivers with a total reach length of 45000 km flowing in our country. They occupy about 3.9 % of the total land of Nepal. The snowy mountains & glacier lakes are also our major water resources. This makes Nepal be the second richest country in water resources after Brazil in the world. Nepal contains 2.27% water of the total water resource in the world. Due to such resources, we have a huge potential for hydropower production which is theoretically found to be 83000 MW. Out of this, 42000 MW of hydroelectricity is feasible economically & technically.
Tourism & Its Importance in Nepal

Tourism & Its Importance in Nepal

Tourism in Nepal

Tourism in Nepal

Advancement in information & communication technologies, improvement in transportation facilities, new business propagandas, etc have abridged down this huge globe into a small locus. It has been extremely easy to stay up to date with family & friends with the help of social media. It has been relatively easier to reach every nook and corner around the world in recent times. As a result, the tourism industry has fostered to today's extent. The tourism industry is one of the major sectors on which the economy of Nepal relies upon. From the plain lands in Terai to the highest peak in the world, Mount Everest, variation in land topography, climate, culture, and traditions exist that make Nepal a perfect spot to be visited at least once in a lifetime. Due to the prolific presence of various attractions for tourists in Nepal, the tourism industry has been a helping hand in the country's economic growth.

Nepal is a country that lies in the southern lap of the Himalayas. It has an area of 1,47,181 sq km which is 0.03% of the total area of earth & 0.3% of the total area of Asia. Nepal has the highest peak in the world, Mt. Everest which lies in the Solukhumbu district. Nepal is the birthplace of Gautam Buddha, the light of Asia & the founder of Buddhism. Nepal is the second richest country in the world in water resources ( after Brazil ). It is estimated that 83,000 MW of electricity can be produced from our water resources. Nepal has ten world heritage sites as declared by UNESCO. Nepal is the only country in the modern world that does not have a rectangular national flag. There are countless monuments in major cities of Nepal i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, etc. They enhance the beauty & attraction of the country. Kathmandu is also known as the "City of Temples". Pokhara is also called "Tourists Paradise" because of its natural beauty. There is great diversity in language & religion. Nepal is also a secular country. Nepal is also known as a country of brave Gorkha armies.

Thus, Nepal is a land of sheer beauty with lots of divine destinations and jaw-dropping unique experiences. The topography includes huge green jungles with diverse species of flora and faunas to the icy cold mountains thus showing the possibilities of activities that the land can offer to its tourists.

Importance of tourism in Nepal

The importance of tourism comes to light since it brings in lots of advantages with it to any host country. It promotes the country's name around the globe. It can be a great source of income for a country. Switzerland, France, Italy, Spain, and many other countries today are counted as flourished nations and the main reason behind this is the development of the tourism industry. Nepal each year gets a lot of visits and is in the path of tourism development by pre-planning events and activities to allure tourists. Below are a few points for the importance of tourism in Nepal.

  • Economic growth: For a developing country like Nepal, the tourism industry can be regarded as bliss as it is a source of foreign exchange and royalty earnings. Tourism succors other industries like hotels, restaurants, handicrafts, and many more to run in an efficient way. Nepal Rastra Bank report shows total foreign currency exchange (less return) for 2018 stood at NRs. 69,750,584 thousand, (Around 617,263 thousand US$).
  • Employment opportunities: Employment opportunities in the tourism and hospitality sectors can be created either directly or indirectly. Direct Employment opportunities are the total number of job opportunities supported directly by travel and tourism for instance guides, employment by hotels, restaurants, rural inns, and guest houses, museums, travel agencies, tourism information offices, protected areas such as national parks, palaces, religious sites, monuments, aircraft, photography, sightseeing tours, farmhouses, local transportation. Tourism and hospitality also support indirect employment in activities like restaurant suppliers, construction companies that build and maintain tourist facilities, as well as necessary infrastructure, various handicrafts producers, marketing agencies, accounting services.
  • Cultural exchange: Tourists from various countries with different cultural backgrounds visit Nepal. In addition to that, Nepal is a home of people with unlike cultural frameworks from being multilingual to multiregional. Hence people can know each other more and learn about their language, art, skill, food, etc.
  • Publicity of nation: Nepal is a small country and has not made a remarkable name in the world scenario. Tourism helps to publicize the country around the world so that more people know Nepal and its authentic beauty. It helps to publicize Nepalese art, skills, tradition, culture, and hospitality to the world.

Ecotourism in Nepal

Ecotourism is defined as “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the well-being of the local people, and involves interpretation and education” (TIES, 2015). It is about uniting conservation, communities, and sustainable travel. In the sixth plan (1980-1985 AD), emphasis was given to the promotion of eco-tourism in Nepal by the government. Since then ecotourism has been flourishing and attracting tourists towards Nepal for wildlife viewing, wilderness camping, trekking, hiking vacations, white water rafting, and many more activities. Along with the conservation of floras and faunas, national parks, conservation areas, wildlife reserves, and hunting reserves have been serving as a prime destination for tourists to enjoy jungle safari and watching wildlife closely. This is an example of ecotourism in Nepal. Moreover, except the main areas of Nepal that are easily accessible by the tourists like Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Lalitpur, Chitwan, Pokhara, Lumbini, etc, rustic areas with abundant possibilities aiding to the attraction of tourists like Manang, Mustang, Dolakha, etc are being promoted for tourism.

Public Private Partnership | PPP in Nepal

Public Private Partnership | PPP in Nepal

Public Private Partnership in Nepal
Public Private Partnership (PPP, 3P, or P3) is a frequently pronounced term in the field of infrastructure development & contract management. It is a widely adopted model mainly for public service delivery. So, before diving into the concept of public private partnership, it is good to know about public service delivery & the various options available for it.
Development Issues & Challenges of Economic Development in Nepal

Development Issues & Challenges of Economic Development in Nepal

Nepal is a beautiful South Asian landlocked country lying on the laps of the Himalayas, covering an area of 1,47,516 square km. It is surrounded by two giant nations; China in the north & India in the rest of the sides. From the huge Himalayas to hills and then Terai, more than 3 crore people have made Nepal their habitat and earn their livelihood.
Sustainable Development Goals 2016 - 2030 | SDGs in Nepal

Sustainable Development Goals 2016 - 2030 | SDGs in Nepal

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the goals set by United Nations Organization ( UNO ) in the 70th session meeting held in September 2015. The SDGs contain 17 goals, 169 indicators & 232 sub-indicators. The 17 SDGs were adopted by 193 member countries of UNO & came into effect on January 1, 2016. The 17 SDGs are:
Current Periodic Plan | 15th Five Year Plan of Nepal

Current Periodic Plan | 15th Five Year Plan of Nepal

In Nepal, a serious effort to planned development was started after the first five-year plan (1956-1961).  The national planning commission is a specialized & apex body of the Government of Nepal for the formulation of national vision, development policy, periodic plans & sectoral policies for the overall development of Nepal. Currently, the 15th plan is in action for the fiscal year 2076/77-2080/81. The approach paper of the 15th plan has been approved by the meeting of the national planning commission chaired by Prime Minister Khadga Prasad Oli on 2076/11/19. The 15th plan has the following key objectives:
Visit Nepal 2020 | Everything You Need To Know

Visit Nepal 2020 | Everything You Need To Know

Visit Nepal 2020
There are many places to visit in Nepal. Trekking in Nepal, mountain climbing, historical & religious places, natural resources, etc are the major reasons for tourists to visit Nepal. Tourism in Nepal dates back to 1949 AD after Annapurna Himal, a massif of the Himalayas in the Northern part, was opened for the public for the ascend to its summit. In 1951 AD, Nepal was made open for international trekkers. Professional tourism started in Nepal with the successful attempt to reach the world’s highest peak, Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay Sherpa in 1953 AD. In 1996, His Majesty’s Government announced the year 1998 as Visit Nepal 1998 so as to set the country’s image as a special destination for visitors with a slogan “A sustainable habitat through sustainable tourism”. Thenceforth every year is celebrated to flourish tourism in Nepal. After the very first Visit Nepal Year 1998, Nepal Tourism Year 2011 was celebrated. Then, we planned to celebrate Visit Nepal Year 2020. The campaign was first reported to be held in 2018 but later put off to 2020 due to the delay in airport & road maintenance & the delay in other reconstruction works caused by the disastrous Gorkha earthquake 2015 (magnitude 7.8 Richter).

The year 2020 was being celebrated as Visit Nepal 2020 with a slogan of “Lifetime Experiences”. Visit Nepal 2020 was officially inaugurated by the president, Bidhya Devi Bhandari on January 1, 2020. The campaign was coordinated by Suraj Vaidya. The folkloric ape-like creature, Yeti, believed to be found in the Himalayan region, was chosen as a mascot of the campaign. The official logo of the Visit Nepal 2020 campaign was designed by Udhav Rimal. The government of Nepal had aimed to welcome about 20 Lakh tourists during this campaign. But Due to the covid-19 pandemic thorough out the world, Nepal's cabinet meeting held on 2076/11/18 BS (March 1, 2020) had decided officially to cancel Visit Nepal 2020 campaign. The Visit Nepal 2020 campaign was planned to revitalize Nepal's tourism industry after devasting Gorkha Earthquake 2015.
National Pride Projects of Nepal

National Pride Projects of Nepal

National Pride Projects of Nepal

National Pride Projects of Nepal

The projects that can enhance the common identity of people along with their quality of life in terms of social, economical, cultural & environmental aspects & are completed within a particular interval of time in particular places can be referred to as national pride projects. Such projects are selected on the basis of development strategies, the economy of the country, technology & its availability, etc. These projects can have a huge impact on the socio-economic progress & are strategically important for the development of different sectors viz. hydroelectricity, irrigation, transportation, tourism, cultures & religion, etc. In short, national pride projects are notable & strategic projects having special importance to the country. The declaration of national pride projects is done as per the decision of the Council of Ministers. The government of Nepal adds different projects to the list of the National Pride Project. During the fiscal year 2068/69, 17 projects were declared as national pride projects for the first time. 4 projects were then added to the list in FY 2070/71. Likewise, three projects were added in the roll with one in each subsequent fiscal year 2075/76, 2076/77 & 2077/78 respectively. Thus, the government of Nepal has declared a total of 24 projects as national pride projects to date whose short description is mentioned below.

1. Sikta Irrigation Project

Sikta irrigation project, as a national pride project, aims to provide irrigation facilities to 43,000 Hectares of agricultural land of Banke district in Lumbini province. This project was started in the fiscal year 2061/62 B.S. and was meant to be completed by the fiscal year 2071/72 B.S. However, this aim could not be achieved and the target completion date was postponed for the year 2076/77 B.S. The cost of the project was estimated to be Rs. 1280 crore while the revised cost is estimated to be Rs. 2502 crore. 
According to the 47th NDAC report, the first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 80.16% and 61.87% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. At present, the construction of headworks, gate, the western canal (45 km), and 80% of the Sidhaniya branch has been completed. The construction of the eastern main canal (16 km) is in its final stage while the problematic section of the western canal is under maintenance. About 1.5 cumecs of water have come into operation at present. Distribution of compensation for 3.5 hectares of land has been done to build branch canals.

2. Babai Irrigation Project

The aim of the project is to irrigate 36,000 hectares of cultivable land of Bardiya district in Lumbini province. The onset of the project as done in the fiscal year 2045/46 B.S. was aimed to be completed in the fiscal year 2069/70 B.S. But the revised completion year has now been changed to 2079/80 B.S. The revised cost of the project has been estimated to be Rs. 1896 crore. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 80.28% and 24.86% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. At present, headworks, main canals, and branch canals have been constructed and 29,500 hectares of land have been irrigated by the Babai irrigation project.

3. Rani - Jamariya - Kulariya Irrigation Project

This national pride project is the largest irrigation system constructed and managed by farmers and was started to provide irrigation facilities to 20,300 hectares of agricultural land in Kailali district (Sudurpaschim province), a western tributary of Karnali river being the source of water. The construction was started in the fiscal year 2067/68 B.S. and as per the revised estimate, it is targeted to be completed in 2080/81 B.S. The total revised cost of the project is Rs. 2770 crore. 
The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 81.29% and 83.27% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. The construction of intake, 8 gates, main canal (8.9 km), and 6 km of Lamki branch have been completed. Modernization of Rani, Jamariya, Kulariya branch canals including the old feeder canal has been done. 75% of work has been done for the protection of the irrigated areas.

4. Bheri - Babai Diversion Multipurpose Project

This national pride project is aimed to transfer 40 cubic meters/sec of water from the Bheri River to Babai river under the head of 150 m to provide round the year irrigation to 51,000 hectares of cultivable land in Bardiya & Banke district of Lumbini province. 48 MW electricity is to be generated as an additional aim of the project. BBDMP includes three major components:
  • about 12.34 km long & 4.2 m dia tunnel,
  • headwork & desanding basin to be constructed in Bheri river end
  • & forebay, penstock, powerhouse & electro-mechanical parts in Babai river end
For tunneling purposes, TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) was used in this project for the first time in Nepal (Siwalik geology). This project was started in the fiscal year 2068/69 B.S. and is aimed to be completed in 2079/80 B.S. The revised cost of the project is estimated to be Rs. 3319.66 crore. It is estimated that the monthly income from irrigation and hydroelectricity will increase to Rs. 3.1 billion and 2.1 billion respectively. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 38.6% and 100% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. As per the latest reports of the National Planning Commission, the final phase of tunnel construction is going on and tender for hydro-mechanical works has been published. Also, compensation has been fixed for land acquisition at the dam site.

5. Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Project

It is one of the national pride projects executed under the public-private partnership (PPP) model that aims to produce 456 MW electricity & is located in the Tamakoshi river of Dolakha district in Bagmati province. It is run of river type of hydroelectric project. Started in the fiscal year 2067/68 B.S., it was aimed to be completed by 2072/73 B.S. But due to the massive earthquake of 2072 B.S. and obstruction in the southern border the completion date was shifted for the year 2076/77. The initial cost of the project was estimated to be Rs. 3529 crore while the revised cost is estimated to be Rs. 4929 crore due to the extension of the construction period. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 76.55% and 71.25% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. Out of 62 upper penstock shafts (311 m) and 74 lower penstock shafts (373 m), 9 shafts (42.5 m) and 26 shafts (130 m) have been constructed to date respectively.

6. Budhigandaki Hydropower Project

The project site is located in Gorkha (Gandaki province) & Dhading (Bagmati province) districts with the aim of generating a total of 1200 MW of electricity. It started in the fiscal year 2069/70 B.S. and the revised schedule of completion of the project is estimated to be 2083/84 B.S. The total cost of the project is estimated to be Rs. 26000 crore. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project both were found to be 62.09% for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. Out of 58153 ropanis of land lying in the flood zone of the project, 44659 ropanis have been given the compensation amount of Rs. 2684.46 crore.

7. West - Seti Hydropower Project

It aims to produce 750 MW of electricity from the water current in the Seti river and the project is located in Doti, Dadeldhura, Baitadi & Bajhang districts of Sudurpaschim province. The investment board is conducting a necessary study in this regard. A committee has been formed to determine the development modality of the project to expedite the development and construction work of the project.

8. Gautam Buddha Regional International Airport

The existing Gautam Buddha Airport in Rupandehi district of Lumbini province is being upgraded into a regional international airport to foster tourism in Nepal and get economical benefits out of it. Its runway will be upgraded from 1500 * 30 m to 3000 * 45 m. In addition to the runway, international building, airport operation, administrative building, control tower, fire control will be constructed. The project was started in 2015 A.D. and expected to complete in December 2017 A.D. As per the revised schedule, the deadline was extended for the second time till December 2019 A.D. 
The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 38.56% and 7.6% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. The construction of the taxiway and apron has been completed along with the structural work of the international terminal building. Construction of new runway administration building and control tower is in progress.

9. Pokhara Regional International Airport

It is an under-construction airport in Pokhara, Gandaki Pradesh consisting of one runway measuring 2500 * 45 m and aiming to handle one million passengers annually. Serving as an alternative international airport, it could help to attract as many tourists in Nepal to make Visit Nepal 2020 a successful event. But due to the ongoing pandemic of Covid-19, the event was canceled off. Although the preliminary works were started in the fiscal year 2064/65 B.S., construction works started in 2073/74 B.S. and are targeted to be completed in 2077/78 B.S. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project both were found to be 100% for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S.

10. Nijgadh International Airport

It is located in Bara district of province no. 2 and aimed to have two parallel runways capable to handle 15 million passengers annually as a well-equipped and alternative international airport. This project was commenced in the fiscal year 2071/72 B.S. and is expected to be completed in 2091/2092 B.S. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 16.5% and 15.5% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. Site clearance of the airport has been prepared and the ministry and investment board have been discussing the overall project and its modality. 

11. Pashupati Area Development Project

The main objective of this project is to plan and execute development programs for the Pashupati area in order to preserve this great world heritage site, make it an International pilgrimage site and develop eco-tourism. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 45% and 11% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. Bids have been published to expand the capacity of the electric crematorium and for upgrading Gaushala Bhubaneshwari Darshan Marg. Similarly, the re-construction of the kitchen of Pashupatinath and preserving the premises of Jit Jung Prakasheshwar temple is going on.

12. Lumbini Area Development Project

Lumbini is the birthplace of Gautam Buddha, the light of Asia, and the founder of Buddhism. This project was founded for the purpose of restoring the Lumbini garden under the master plan of the government of Nepal in order to develop the holy birthplace of Gautam Buddha as an international center for Buddhists and peace-loving people. Started in the fiscal year 2069/70 B.S., it is targeted to be completed by 2077/78 B.S. The initial cost estimate of the project was Rs. 550 crore. and the revised cost is Rs. 610 crores. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 100% and 52.17% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S.

13. Mid-Hill Pushpalal Highway

The double lane highway which runs through the mid-hill region of Nepal starting from Chiyabhanjyang of Panchthar district in the east and ending at Jhulaghat of Baitadi district in the west is named as Mid - Hill Pushpalal Highway. Various development issues that Nepal has been facing include lack of good transportation facilities too. Hence with an aim of economic, social, cultural, tourism, and educational prosperity via development in transportation, this project was started in the fiscal year 2064/65 B.S. and expected to be completed in 2074/75 B.S. But the revised schedule has aimed that the completion year of this project will be 2079/80 B.S. The revised cost estimate is Rs. 10150 crores. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 91.5% and 65% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. During this period, 20.5 km blacktop, 69 km gravel road, and 2 bridges have been constructed.

14. Rail, Metro Rail, and Monorail Development Program / East-West Railway

Realizing the importance of railways in carrying freight and passengers, the Government of Nepal planned to construct a railway line from east to west that connects the capital city, Kathmandu, with a total of 946 km in length. Started in the fiscal year 2066/67 B.S., the project has mainly focused on East-West railway, Kathmandu-Birgunj railway, Kerung-Kathmandu-Pokhara-Lumbini railway, and inter-country railway at six different places connecting it with Indian railways. 
The first quarterly financial progress of the project was found to be 37.2% for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. Out of the 69 km Jayanagar-Janakpur-Bardibas railway section, construction work has been completed for Jayanagar-Janakpur (34 km) section and railway regulations have been prepared to operate train service in that section. Council of Ministers has made a purchase agreement with India railways to buy a train for the railway. Similarly, 10 km of railway track has been constructed for the Jogbani-Biratnagar railway (18 km) and about 80% of works have been completed in other sectors. Also, the Initial trackbed has been laid on 70 km long Bardibas-Nijgadh Railway, and construction of 10 bridges in the railway section has been started with contract management.

15. Terai Hulaki Marga / Postal Highway

Terai Hulaki Marga (Postal Highway) runs from Kechana, Jhapa in the east to Dodhara, Kanchanpur in the west cutting across the entire Terai section of the country with a length of 1792.42 km. The east-west length is 975 km and 28 ancillary roads connecting the north and south part is 817.42 km. The project aims to build and upgrade roads and construct 219 bridges. The initial schedule estimated that the project would be completed in the fiscal year 2074/75 B.S., being started in 2065/66 B.S. But the revised estimate has targeted to complete the project by the year 2079/80 B.S. The total initial cost estimate of this project is around Rs. 4727 crore while the revised cost was Rs. 6520 crores. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 94% and 95% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. During this period, 50 km blacktopping, 25 km gravel road, and 6 bridges have been constructed. Also, the road contract for 300 km road has been signed.

16. Kathmandu - Terai Expressway / Kathmandu - Terai Fast Track

The four-lane road of a total length of 76.4 km linking Kathmandu with Nijgadh of Bara district by Asian Highway Design Standard (Primary Class A) level road is named as Kathmandu - Terai Expressway. This project was started in 2074/75 B.S. when the Government of Nepal has handed this project to Nepal Army and is expected to complete it in 2080/81 B.S. The total initial cost estimate of this project is around Rs. 11,600 crore while the revised cost was Rs. 21,395 crores. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 88% and 6.06% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. Required drawings and designs are being made to further complete the project.

17. North-South Koshi Corridor

It is a north-south highway that is known to be the shortest highway of 162  km from Basantapur in Tehrathum district to Kimathanka on the northern border, connecting India and China across the Himalayan mountains in Nepal. Although it was expected to be completed in the fiscal year 2076/77 being started in 2065/66, the deadline has been extended again to 2080/81. The revised cost estimate of this project is Rs. 1620 crore. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 68% and 16% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S.

18. North-South Kaligandaki Corridor

Kaligandaki corridor is a strategic project of length 435 km which links the Chinese border in the north via Korala with the Indian border in the south via Bhairahawa. It includes Nawalparasi, Palpa, Tanahu, Syangja, Gulmi, Baglung, Parbat, Myagdi, and Mustang districts. The initial schedule estimated that the project would be completed in the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S., being started in 2065/66 B.S. But the revised estimate has targeted to complete the project by the year 2080/81 B.S. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 75.31% and 77.57% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. Gravel has been placed in 33 km of Beni Jomson road section. 1 km road has been widened, 1 km road has been graveled and 5 bridges have been constructed in Maldhunga Ramdi Gairakot road section. 

19. North-South Karnali Corridor

It is divided in two parts i.e. Khulalu-Simikot (145 Km) & Hilsa-Simikot  (88 Km) in Humla. This project was started in the fiscal year 2065/66 B.S. and was meant to be completed by the fiscal year 2070/71 B.S. However, this aim could not be achieved and the target completion date was postponed for the year 2079/80 B.S. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 98.75% and 100% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. During this period, 3.9 km track has been opened in the Khulalu Laifu Simikot section. 4 km track has also been opened and 10 km road widening work has been completed in Hilsa Simikot Section.

20. Melamchi Drinking Water Project

Melamchi drinking water project is designed to divert about 170 MLD (Million Liters Per Day) of freshwater to 3 million people residing in Kathmandu valley from Melamchi River in Sindhupalchowk district in Bagmati Province. The first phase of the project was started in 2055/56 B.S. and was expected to complete in 2070/71 B.S. But the revised schedule has shown that the project is to be completed by 2077/78 B.S. The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 37.28% and 13.67% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. For the construction of the cofferdam, 500 cubic meters of excavation has been done on both left and right sides by blasting. The work of tunnel finishing has been done.

21. President Chure Terai Madhesh Conservation Area Program

Chure is a young mountain range situated between the Mahabharat range in the north and the Terai plains in the south. The range is mostly a long single file of mountains that runs continuously from the Indus river in Pakistan in the west throughout the length of Nepal until it reaches the Bramhaputra river in India in the east. The Government of Nepal has launched "Rashtrapati Chure Terai Madhesh Conservation Programme" in the fiscal year 266/67 B.S. and has been operating as a project of national pride since 2070/71 B.S. This program aims to support the national goal of poverty alleviation and prosperity by managing and utilizing the natural resources of Chure region in order to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs). Programs such as group networking among upper coastal residents, construction and management of new nurseries, producing various species of plants, controlling Chure fire and forest encroachment, controlling smuggling, employment-oriented tree afforestation programs have been conducted. The 20-year master plan for the protection of Chure Terai Madhes was approved by the Government of Nepal in Jestha 2074 B.S. and is being implemented accordingly.
The first quarterly physical and financial progress of the project was found to be 86.67% and 27.32% respectively for the fiscal year 2076/77 B.S. Flood control, risk reduction, and greenery promotion in river banks have been started. The master plan has mapped 164 river systems flowing through the Chure region while 64 of them have been prioritized for the first five years. Further conservation program of the lake has been started.

22. Electricity Transmission Project

It includes two different electricity transmission projects which will be funded by the donation obtained from Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC). MCC has currently been a burning topic for discussion among Nepalese people. MCC is basically an agreement, between the Government of Nepal & the United States foreign aid agency, in order to grant 500 Millon US dollars (About 60 Arba in Nepali Currency) to Nepal which should be utilized for the development of energy & transportation sectors in Nepal. In addition to this, the Government of Nepal should also invest 15 Arba rupees for infrastructure development under this agreement. The Cabinet meeting held in 5 Ashwin, 2075 had declared two projects under the MCC agreements as the national pride projects. These two projects are Lapsephedi-Galchhi-Ratamate transmission line & Damauli-Bharatpur-Butwal transmission line. The MCC agreement was done on 29 Bhadra 2074, but it needs to be approved by the house of representatives in Nepal in order to get implemented.

23. Sunkoshi Marin Diversion Project

It is a multipurpose project that supports the current Bagmati Irrigation Project & also aims to generate 28.62 MW of hydroelectricity. The Sunkoshi Marin Diversion Multipurpose Project is conceptualized to divert the water from Sunkoshi river to the Marin river, a tributary of Bagmati river, which will then be fed to Bagmati Irrigation System contributing irrigation facilities to a total of 1,22,000 hectare land in Bara, Rautahat, Sarlahi, Mahottari & Dhanusa districts. This project was announced as a national pride project in the budget speech of FY 2076/77. This project is expected to be completed by FY 2080/81 at a total cost of 4619.29 Crore.

24. Mahakali Irrigation Project

It is the youngest project to be declared as a national pride project. It was announced in the budget speech of FY 2077/78 as a national pride project by finance minister Dr. Yuba Raj Khatiwoda. This project aims to provide irrigation facilities to 33,520 hectare of agricultural land of the Kailali & Kanchanpur districts. This project is expected to be completed by the end of FY 2083/84 at a total cost of 34 Arba Rupees.