Concept of IEE/EIA & Its Importance in Project Development - VIVEK DHAKAL

Concept of IEE/EIA & Its Importance in Project Development

 Concept of IEE / EIA

The concept of IEE/EIA was first introduced in USA in 1970 AD under United States Environmental Law. This concept spread worldwide particularly after UN Earth Summit held in 1992 at Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. In the context of our country, government of Nepal introduced the National Environment Impact Assessment Guideline in 2050 BS. The Environment Protection Act 2053 and Environment Protection Regulation 2054 were then formulated. A new environment protection act was introduced by government of Nepal in 2076 BS. Such acts and guidelines provide a legal framework that requires developers to assess and mitigate the environmental impacts of any development project. IEE/EIA is a tool to identify and manage the effects of a development project to the environment. 

Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)

It is a preliminary environmental assessment for small projects with relatively low environmental risk. If IEE provides solutions to the identified environmental problems, then EIA is not necessary. If EIA becomes necessary, IEE serves as a valuable precursor to full EIA. The methodology involved in initial environmental examination (IEE) are as below:
  • Project description
  • Environmental screening
  • Preparation of TOR
  • Approval of TOR by concerned body
  • Conducting Environmental Assessment
  • Preparation of IEE Report
  • Submission of IEE Report
If the IEE report submitted is approved by concerned authority, the project is implimented. If it donot get approved, EIA is needed.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

It is the more extensive environmental assessment process for relatively larger project with potentially significant environmetal impacts. Its methodology includes:
  • Project description
  • Environmental screening
  • Preparation of TOR and Scoping
  • Approval of TOR and Scoping
  • Environmental Assessment
  • Preparation of draft EIA report
  • Disclosure of draft EIA report for comments and review
  • Submission of EIA report
If the EIA report submitted gets approved then the project is implimented otherwise, redesigning of project is necessary.

Principles of EIA

  1. Cost Effectiveness
  2. Transparency
  3. Certainity
  4. Participation
  5. Practicality

Difference between IEE and EIA

Difference between IEE and EIA

Importance of IEE / EIA

  • To identify the environmental impacts
  • To assess whether the impacts can be mitigated
  • To recommend the corrective and preventive mitigation measures
  • To examine the enviromental implications
  • To inform the decision makers and concerned parties about the environmental implication
  • To advise whether the development project should go ahead or not.

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