VIVEK DHAKAL

I'm a Civil Engineer. I usually write about engineering and some topical matters.

Types of Foundation Used in Civil Engineering Constructions

Types of Foundation Used in Civil Engineering Constructions

Every civil engineering structure, whether it is a building, a bridge, or a dam, is founded on or below the surface of the earth. Foundations are required to transmit the load of the structure to the foundation soil safely & efficiently. Different types of foundations used in civil engineering constructions can be classified as follows:
Types of foundations used in Civil Engineering constructions

Shallow Foundation

According to Terzaghi, a shallow foundation is one whose width is greater than its depth. i.e. Df/B<1. Such a foundation transmits the load to the upper strata of the earth & is generally provided to the lightweight structures. It is preferred when foundation soil has sufficient bearing capacity at shallow depth. When the sum of areas covered by each isolated footings is more than 50% of the total area of the foundation, mat foundation is adopted.

Strip or Wall Footing

Strip or Wall Footing

Isolated or Spread Footing

Isolated or Spread footing used in Civil Engineering constructions

Combined Footing

Combined footing used in Civil Engineering constructions

Strap or Cantilever Footing

Strap footing or cantilever footing

Mat or Raft Foundation

Types of Mat or Raft Foundation

Deep Foundation

A deep foundation is one whose width is less than its depth i.e. Df/B>1. Such a foundation transmits the load to the strata at a considerable depth below the surface of the earth & is provided to the heavyweight structure. It is preferred when the soil at the surface of the earth does not possess a considerable bearing capacity. The most common types of deep foundations are piles, piers & caissons. Well foundations are the special case of open caissons.
Types of deep foundation used in civil engineering constructions
What are the Criteria for Selection of Ideal Bridge Site?

What are the Criteria for Selection of Ideal Bridge Site?

Criteria for selection of ideal bridge site
It is necessary to select an ideal bridge site at which the bridge can be made economically. As construction of a bridge requires a heavy investment, the bridge site should be selected wisely. A poor bridge site may increase the project's cost, making it susceptible to damage, in the long run, thus decreasing the life span of bridges. Thus, the following are the factors that require attention while selecting a bridge site.
Principles & Techniques of Bioengineering for Civil Engineers

Principles & Techniques of Bioengineering for Civil Engineers

In a broader sense, Bioengineering is the use of life science & engineering to solve human life problems. Here, in this article, we are using the term bioengineering in the context of civil engineering & it basically refers to soil bioengineering. So, Bioengineering can be defined as the use of vegetative measures & small civil engineering structures in order to reduce the shallow seated instability. The living plants or non-living plant materials are used alone or in conjunction with small civil engineering structures for slope stabilization & erosion control. It utilizes locally available resources & is a cost-effective method.

Principles of Bioengineering

Initially, stability is obtained from the small civil engineering structures. The strength of those structures decreases gradually. After the handover point, stability is derived from the vegetative measures. This can be depicted from the graph shown below:
Principles of Soil Bioengineering

Functions of Bioengineering

Engineering functions performed by vegetation on a slope are as follows:
  • Catch
  • Armor
  • Reinforce
  • Anchor
  • Support
  • Drain

Advantages of Bioengineering

  • Immediate slope stabilization & erosion control
  • Utilization of locally available resources (local tools, local manpower, local materials)
  • It is a cost-effective method
  • No need for frequent maintenance
  • It also provides an opportunity for wildlife habitat
  • It also improves the aesthetic beauty of the site

Commonly Used Techniques of Bioengineering

  • Fascine: Bundle of live branches laid in shallow trenches
  • Palisade: Woody cuttings planted across the slope.
  • Wattling: Fence made out of vegetative materials.
  • Bamboo Planting: Planting of bamboo for soil conservation
  • Grass Planting: Planting of grass across the slope
  • Brush Layering: Layers of woody cuttings planted in line following the contour
  • RipRap: Stone pitching with vegetation interplanted between them
  • Retaining Wall: Wall built to resist the pressure of earth filling or backing
    • Toe Wall
    • Breast Wall or Revetment Wall
  • Check Dam: Dams constructed across the gullies to retard the flow
  • Gabion Wall: Walls made up of gabion wire filled with stones
  • Stone Masonry: Masonry construction using stones & mortar 
  • Jute Netting: Protecting the slope with standard jute mesh
  • Rock Netting: Wire mesh of reliable material used to control the rockfall
  • Rock Bolting: Reinforcement of rock slope by inserting steel bars
  • French Drain: Subsurface drainage channel filled with aggregates
Degree of Static & Kinematic Indeterminacy of Structures

Degree of Static & Kinematic Indeterminacy of Structures

A structural system that can be analyzed by using the equation of static equilibrium only is called statically determinate structure i.e. reaction components and internal stresses can be calculated using static equilibrium equations only. Eg: Simply supported beam. If it cannot be analyzed by the equation of static equilibrium alone, then it is called a statically indeterminate structure. Eg: Fixed beam. A structural system is said to be kinematically indeterminate if the displacement components of its joints cannot be determined by the compatibility equation alone. Eg: Simply supported beam. If those unknown quantities can be found by using compatibility equations alone then the structure is called kinematically determinate structure. Eg: Fixed beam. But before calculating the degree of indeterminacy of a structure, it is good to know about its stability. If a structure is unstable, then it doesn't matter whether it is statically determinate or indeterminate. In all cases, such types of structures should be avoided in practice.
Parts of Research Paper | How to write a Research Paper?

Parts of Research Paper | How to write a Research Paper?

How to write a Research Paper?

A research paper is scientific writing that shapes up an idea into words with solid and verifiable evidence. The main goal of a research paper is to assemble different opinions, perspectives, corroboration, and facts on a subject matter from various resources like articles, books, other research papers, interviews and elucidate the details and findings in one's own words. The most popular types of research papers are argumentative papers, analytical papers, definition papers, compare and contrast papers, cause and effect papers, reports, and interpretive papers.

What is Clean Feed Rule in Nepal? Importance of Clean Feed

What is Clean Feed Rule in Nepal? Importance of Clean Feed

What is clean feed rule in Nepal?
The Government of Nepal has made clean feed policy mandatory since Kartik 7, 2077. The government of Nepal had actually tried to implement this policy a year before but Cable TV operators were not well prepared at that time & urged some time to the government. Then, the Government of Nepal provided a period of one year for them to be fully prepared with clean feed channels & has been mandatorily implemented from the date.

 What is the Clean Feed Rule in Nepal?

Clean feed is a provision of foreign advertisement less television channels in Nepal. Non-Nepalese TV channels are not allowed to show their advertisements in Nepal. So the basic principle behind this is that foreign advertisements should not be fed to Nepali people via non-Nepalese TV channels. If foreign companies wish to show their ads to Nepali people, they have to make it in Nepali setup & are only able to give it to the Nepalese TV channels. Before the implementation of clean feed, the foreign channels were showing their ads without investing even a penny in Nepal. All the foreign companies were giving their advertisement charge to non-Nepalese TV channels & those channels were free to show their ads in Nepal. Besides this, those channels were also charging fees to Nepali customers for watching their channels with ads. After the implementation of this policy, all the foreign channels have to broadcast their shows without ads. Clean feed policy comes under Advertisement Regulation Act 2076.

What is the importance of Clean Feed in Nepal?

  • As the foreign channels were not allowed to show ads in Nepal, all the foreign advertisers targeting the Nepali audiences will be compelled to make their ads in Nepal & distribute it to Nepali TV channels which will obviously endorse the foreign currency in Nepal.
  • As foreign advertisers are forced to make their ads in the Nepali language, Nepalese artists will get more chances to get involved in it.
  • As the number of foreign ads will be reduced considerably, Nepalese products will get more space in digital marketing.
  • There won't be any irrelevant foreign ads thus improving the television watching experience.
Federal Nepal: Provinces & Local Levels of Nepal

Federal Nepal: Provinces & Local Levels of Nepal

According to article 56 of the constitution of Nepal, the main structure of the federal democratic republic of Nepal shall be of three levels namely the federation, the state & local levels. As per the present constitution, Nepal has 7 states/provinces & 753 local levels. The new structure divides Nepal into 77 districts & 6,743 wards. The local levels include metropolises (6), sub metropolises (11), municipalities (276) & gaupalikas (460).
New Map of Nepal with 7 provinces and their Capitals
The capital city of Nepal is Kathmandu. The current President of Nepal is Bidhya Devi Bhandari & the current prime minister is Sher Bahadur Deuba. Nepal has a total population of  2,64,94,504 according to the 2011 census.

7 States of Nepal

Province No 1

Map of Province no 1 with districts
Province no 1 lies in the eastern region of Nepal. Its boundary touches both of the neighboring countries of Nepal i.e. India & China. It consists of 14 districts & 137 local levels. Mount Everest, the highest peak of the world is located in this state. Apart from this, it has other mountains like Kanchanjangha, Choyu, Makalu, Lotse, etc. Illam, Namche Bajar of Solukhumbu, Sagarmatha base camp, etc are the major tourist attractions of this region. The famous Pathivara temple of Taplejung district is also located in this state. The Puwa Khola hydroelectricity project & Thame hydroelectricity project are situated in this state. The major rivers of this province are Mechi, Arun, Tamor, Dudhkoshi, etc. The major lakes located in this province are namely Mai Pokhari, Jor Pokhari, Baraha Lake, etc.

Province No 2: Madhesh Pradesh

Map of Province no 2 with districts
It is the smallest state of Nepal & only touches India in its boundary. It has 8 districts along with 136 local levels. The Janaki temple of Janakpur & Chhinamasta temple of Saptari district are the major religious places of this state. The well-known Bagamati irrigation project lies in this province. This is the only province of Nepal that does not contain any hydroelectricity project. The biggest river of Nepal, the Saptakoshi river flows in this region.

Province No 3: Bagmati Pradesh

Map of Province no 3 with districts
It is a relatively more developed & well-infrastructured province of Nepal. It has its border connected to both India & China. The capital city of the country, Kathmandu, is situated in this province & the provincial capital is Hetauda. Kathmandu city is also known as the city of temples. The Pashupatinath Temple, Krishna temple of Patan, Swyambhunath, Bouddhanath, Changunarayan, Gosaikunda, Kalinchowk Bhagwati, Manakamana temple, Dakshinkali temple, etc are the major religious places of this state. There are other well-known tourist attractions as well. They are namely Patan, Bhaktapur, Nagarkot, Chovar, Dhulikhel, Chitwan National Park, Langtang National Park, Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Chandragiri hills, Annapurna base camp trekking, etc. This province consists of 13 districts & 119 local levels.

Province No 4: Gandaki Pradesh

Map of Province no 4 with districts
Gandaki Province is situated in between Province no 5 & Bagmati Province touching both of the neighboring countries at its boundary. It consists of 11 districts along with 85 local levels. The Pokhara city, also called tourists paradise, is located at the heart of this state. The heavenly Pokhara city, Phewa Lake, Devi's Fall, Mahendra Cave, International Mountain Museum, Annapurna Mountain, Machapuchre Mountain, Tilicho Lake, Upper Mustang, etc are the major tourist attractions of this state. Kaligandaki, Budigandaki, Marsyandi, Modi, Seti, Aandhikhola etc are the major rivers flowing in this state.

Province No 5: Lumbini Pradesh

Map of Province no 5 with districts
Province No 5 is one of the 7 provinces established by the present constitution of Nepal that contains 6 districts in the Terai region and the remaining 6 districts in the mountainous region out of a total of 12 districts within its territory. It only touches India at its boundary. Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Gautam Buddha is situated in this state. The largest valley of Asia i.e. the Dang valley lies in this region. Lumbini, Bardiya National Park, Banke National Park, Blackbuck Conservation area, etc are the major tourist attractions of this province.

Province No 6: Karnali Pradesh

Map of Province no 6 with districts
It is the largest state of Nepal that only touches China in the North at its boundary. It has 10 districts & 79 local levels. Humla Karnali, Mugu Karnali, Thulo Bheri, Sano Bheri, Budiganga, Setiganga, Tila, etc are the major rivers of this region. Rara lake, Shey Phoksundo lake, Syarpu lake, Jagadulla lake, Bulbule lake, etc are the well-known lakes of this state. Rara National Park, Shey Phoksundo National Park, Kankrebihar, etc are well-known sites for tourists attraction in this region.

Province No 7: Sudur Pashchim Pradesh

Map of Province no 7 with districts
It is situated at the western end of Nepal & touches both India and China at its boundary. It consists of 9 districts & 88 local levels. Kailali, Tikapur, Mahendranagar, Dhangadhi, etc are the main cities of this state. Khaptad National Park, Shuklaphata National Park, Naini Lake, Jhilamila Lake, Ghodaghodi Lake, Dodhara Chadhani bridge, Karnali bridge, Tikapur Park, Lipulekh, Limpiyadhura, Kalapani, etc are the major tourist destinations of this region. The Mahakali river flows in this state.

Local Levels of Nepal

A total of 753 local levels have been made in the new federal structure of Nepal. They comprise 6743 wards. The local levels include gaupalikas, metropolis, sub metropolis & municipalities. Kathmandu & Bhaktapur districts do not have gaupalikas. Likewise Manang, Mustang, Humla, Rauwa & Purbi Rukum districts do not have municipalities. All the local levels of Nepal operate under the Local Government Operation Act, 2074 which came into effect in 2074/06/29. This act has made a criterion of 5 - 21 wards limit for Gaupalikas & 9 - 35 wards limit for municipalities.
National Parks of Nepal | Wildlife Reserve and Conservation Areas

National Parks of Nepal | Wildlife Reserve and Conservation Areas

How many National Parks are there in Nepal?
- 12
Which is the largest national park in Nepal?                          
- Shey Phoksundo National Park 
Which is the smallest national park in Nepal?
- Rara National Park
Which is the oldest national park in Nepal?
- Chitwan National Park
Which is the youngest national park of Nepal?
- Banke National Park
How many wildlife reserves are there in Nepal?
- 1 (Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve)
How many conservation areas are there in Nepal?
- 6
Which is the largest conservation area of Nepal?
- Annapurna Conservation Area
Which is the smallest conservation area of Nepal?
- Krishnasaar Conservation Area
Which is the oldest conservation area of Nepal?
- Annapurna Conservation Area
Which is the newest conservation area of Nepal?
- Krishnasaar Conservation Area
How many hunting reserves are there in Nepal?
- 1 (Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve)

Differences Between National Park and Wildlife Reserve

National parks are usually established to preserve the flora and fauna of the area and other things of historical and geographical importance while wildlife reserves are solely motivated to protect a particular group of flora and fauna. Human activities like agriculture and organic farming, extracting timbers or collecting fruits, berries, honey, etc. are allowed in wildlife reserves while it is not allowed in national parks. A wildlife reserve can be upgraded to a national park while vice versa is not possible. There are twelve national parks in Nepal whereas there is only one wildlife reserve.

12 National Parks of Nepal in map

Conservation Areas

There are six conservation areas in Nepal to protect natural ecosystems and to use natural resources sustainably. They are generally large and most of the areas are in natural conditions.

Hunting Reserve

Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve is the only hunting reserve in Nepal established with an aim of preserving a representative high altitude ecosystem in west Nepal and allow sports hunting of blue sheep and other game animals.

Ramsar Sites

These are the wetlands (having water depth less than 6m) conserved by an intergovernmental treaty, known as Ramsar Convention held in Ramsar, Iran at 1971 AD.

Basic Information on Protected Areas of Nepal

Protected Areas of Nepal comprehends twelve national parks, six conservation areas, one wildlife reserve, and a hunting reserve that covers most of the forested areas ranging from lowlands to the high snow-capped mountains, fringing a multitude of landscapes and taking care of a vast biodiversity present in the realm. In addition, numerous Ramsar sites (wetlands) have also been safeguarding innumerable floras and faunas.

Hydroelectricity in Nepal | Hydropower Projects in Nepal

Hydroelectricity in Nepal | Hydropower Projects in Nepal

Hydroelectricity in Nepal

There are more than 6000 rivers with a total reach length of 45000 km flowing in our country. They occupy about 3.9 % of the total land of Nepal. The snowy mountains & glacier lakes are also our major water resources. This makes Nepal be the second richest country in water resources after Brazil in the world. Nepal contains 2.27% water of the total water resource in the world. Due to such resources, we have a huge potential for hydropower production which is theoretically found to be 83000 MW. Out of this, 42000 MW of hydroelectricity is feasible economically & technically.