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Objectives & Methods of River Training Works

Definition of River Training The process of controlling the flow in river & river bed configuration is called river training works. These are the structural measures adopted in rivers to avoid outflanking & shifting its thalweg due to geomorphological changes in the river. So, the river training works stabilize the river channel along a certain alignment.

Methods of Soil Compaction | Types of Soil Compaction

Compaction of soil is necessary for various types of foundations used in civil engineering constructions. It improves the engineering properties of soil. Compaction is the process of reducing air voids in soil by means of mechanical compressions. During compaction, the air is expelled from the voids in the soil. It increases the dry density of soil, improves shear strength & hence stability and bearing capacity. The various methods of soil compaction are as follows: Tamper / Rammer Hand Operated Tamper Mechanical Tamper Roller Smooth Wheeled Roller Pneumatic Tyred Roller Sheep Foot Roller Vibrator

Types of Foundation Used in Civil Engineering Constructions

Every civil engineering structure, whether it is a building, a bridge, or a dam, is founded on or below the surface of the earth. Foundations are required to transmit the load of the structure to the foundation soil safely & efficiently. Different types of foundations used in civil engineering constructions can be classified as follows: Shallow Foundation According to Terzaghi, a shallow foundation is one whose width is greater than its depth. i.e. Df/B<1. Such a foundation transmits the load to the upper strata of the earth & is generally provided to the lightweight structures. It is preferred when foundation soil has sufficient bearing capacity at shallow depth. When the sum of areas covered by each isolated footings is more than 50% of the total area of the foundation, mat foundation is adopted. Strip or Wall Footing Isolated or Spread Footing Combined Footing Strap or Cantilever Footing Mat or Raft Foundation Deep Foundation A deep foundation is one whose width is less t

What are the Criteria for Selection of Ideal Bridge Site?

It is necessary to select an ideal bridge site at which the bridge can be made economically. As construction of a bridge requires a heavy investment, the bridge site should be selected wisely. A poor bridge site may increase the project's cost, making it susceptible to damage, in the long run, thus decreasing the life span of bridges. Thus, the following are the factors that require attention while selecting a bridge site.

Principles & Techniques of Bioengineering for Civil Engineers

In a broader sense, Bioengineering is the use of life science & engineering to solve human life problems. Here, in this article, we are using the term bioengineering in the context of civil engineering & it basically refers to soil bioengineering. So, Bioengineering can be defined as the use of vegetative measures & small civil engineering structures in order to reduce the shallow seated instability. The living plants or non-living plant materials are used alone or in conjunction with small civil engineering structures for slope stabilization & erosion control. It utilizes locally available resources & is a cost-effective method. Principles of Bioengineering Initially, stability is obtained from the small civil engineering structures. The strength of those structures decreases gradually. After the handover point, stability is derived from the vegetative measures. This can be depicted from the graph shown below: Functions of Bioengineering Engineering functions perfo

Degree of Static & Kinematic Indeterminacy of Structures

A structural system that can be analyzed by using the equation of static equilibrium only is called statically determinate structure i.e. reaction components and internal stresses can be calculated using static equilibrium equations only. Eg: Simply supported beam. If it cannot be analyzed by the equation of static equilibrium alone, then it is called a statically indeterminate structure. Eg: Fixed beam. A structural system is said to be kinematically indeterminate if the displacement components of its joints cannot be determined by the compatibility equation alone. Eg: Simply supported beam. If those unknown quantities can be found by using compatibility equations alone then the structure is called kinematically determinate structure. Eg: Fixed beam. But before calculating the degree of indeterminacy of a structure, it is good to know about its stability. If a structure is unstable, then it doesn't matter whether it is statically determinate or indeterminate. In all cases, such ty

Parts of Research Paper | How to write a Research Paper?

A research paper is scientific writing that shapes up an idea into words with solid and verifiable evidence. The main goal of a research paper is to assemble different opinions, perspectives, corroboration, and facts on a subject matter from various resources like articles, books, other research papers, interviews and elucidate the details and findings in one's own words. The most popular types of research papers are argumentative papers, analytical papers, definition papers, compare and contrast papers, cause and effect papers, reports, and interpretive papers.

Hydroelectricity in Nepal | Hydropower Projects in Nepal

There are more than 6000 rivers with a total reach length of 45000 km flowing in our country. They occupy about 3.9 % of the total land of Nepal. The snowy mountains & glacier lakes are also our major water resources. This makes Nepal be the second richest country in water resources after Brazil in the world. Nepal contains 2.27% water of the total water resource in the world. Due to such resources, we have a huge potential for hydropower production which is theoretically found to be 83000 MW. Out of this, 42000 MW of hydroelectricity is feasible economically & technically.

Public Private Partnership | PPP in Nepal

Public Private Partnership (PPP, 3P, or P3) is a frequently pronounced term in the field of infrastructure development & contract management. It is a widely adopted model mainly for public service delivery. So, before diving into the concept of public private partnership, it is good to know about public service delivery & the various options available for it.

Watershed & Watershed Delineation | Calculating Catchment Area

What is Watershed & Watershed Delineation? A watershed is all the land & water which contributes runoff to a common point or outlet point. It is also called a catchment or drainage area. The terms catchment & watershed are found to be used interchangeably. So, the watershed area is the land area, from where all the surface runoff converges to a single point to give common discharge. Watershed delineation thus refers to creating a boundary that represents the contributing area for a particular outlet point. Why Watershed Delineation is required? Watershed delineation is done primarily to define the boundary of the study area or to divide the study area into subareas. Also, watershed delineation is the initial job for calculating catchment area. So, watershed delineation has major importance in watershed management, soil conservation & hydrometeorological studies. How to delineate watershed? Delineating watershed means you're drawing boundary lines of the catchment on

Monthly Flow Estimation | Regional & Empirical Methods in Nepal

Monthly flow estimation of a catchment is a major task for the design of an irrigation system in a required commanded area. We generally estimate runoff as annual or monthly flow, extremely low flow & flood flow. Annual or monthly flow is required for the design of irrigation water requirements whereas extreme low flow & flood flow are determined for the design of hydraulic structures & river training works. Here, in this article, we are mainly concerned with the estimation of monthly flow in the catchment area of study. When long-term flow data of the study are available, we use the frequency analysis method. In absence of such records, we can apply regional & empirical methods to calculate monthly flows.

Design Flood Estimation | Regional & Empirical Methods in Nepal

Design flood estimation is a major task for the design of hydraulic structures & river training works. The estimation of runoff from a catchment is a very complex problem. We generally estimate runoff in the following different forms:

Geological Division of Nepal | Origin of Himalayas

Origin of Himalayas Before discussing the geological division of Nepal, it's good to know about the origin of the Himalayas. Nepal is a country that does not sit on a single tectonic plate. It sits on the boundaries of two tectonic plates i.e. Indian plate and the Eurasian plate ( also called the Tibetan plate ). The Indian plate in the south and the Eurasian plate in the north started to collide millions of years ago after the vanishing of Tethys sea in between them. The collision process is still active and this collision gave birth to the Himalayas of which Nepal is the most important part. The Himalayan range is about 2400Km long and extends from the Indus River in the west to the Assam in the east. The collision process continued over years and some major and minor faults were developed within the area of our country. The study has shown the following major faults: